For any given claim, I hold the following perspectives:
- Conclusions are rarely absolute. Instead, I view them as 'likely, based on current evidence.'
- A conclusion may change over time with new information
- A conclusion may represent an average effect, individual results may vary.
- To further complicate things, really tiny things (genes, microbes, nutrients) cascade toward really big things (people, populations). There is a lot of distance to travel as we zoom in and zoom out.
- Related to this, not all studies are equal.
For more detailed perspectives on scientific scrutiny, please refer to Peter Attia's Studying Studies.